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Thailand’s ODA Volume

                Only provider countries in OECD are required to report their ODA, but TICA has been reporting Thailand’s ODA to the OECD on voluntary basis since 2006.  From 2010-2018, Thailand’s ODA has been steadily increasing (4,561.78 million baht in 2018.)  In 2016, Thailand’s ODA was recorded at 7,104.20 million baht because it included Thailand’s joint venture in Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), which, according to OECD, counted 85% of such joint venture as ODA.

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Volume of Thailand’s ODA according to modalities (2010-2018) as reported to OECD

Unit: Million baht

 

The spike in 2016 comes from the inclusion of Thailand’s joint venture in Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).  According to the OECD, 85% of such joint venture can be counted as ODA.

Between 2010 and 2018, Thailand’s ODA can be divided into 3 modalities (1) Grant/Technical Cooperation, from 452.57 million baht in 2010 to 1,662.45 million baht in 2018 (2) Contribution to international organization, from 277.83 million baht in 2010 to 4,673.64 million baht in 2018 (3) Loans, from 211.79 million baht in 2010 to 1,338.01 million baht in 2018.

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Volume of Thailand’s ODA 2010-2018

From 2010 to 2018, Thailand’s ODA varied from 1,149.56 to 7,104.2 million, peaking in 2016 at 7,104.2 million baht.

 

                In 2018, Thailand’s ODA amounted to 4,561.78 million baht or 0.03% of Gross National Income (GNI), which can be categorized into 3 modalities:

                (1) Loans 447.01 million baht or 9.8% of the overall ODA

                (2) Grant and Technical Cooperation 1,662.45 million baht or 36.44% of the overall ODA

                (3) Contribution to international organizations 2,452.32 million baht or 53.76% of the overall ODA

 

                In 2018, Thailand’s ODA amounted to 4,561.78 million baht or 0.03% of Gross National Income (GNI), which can be categorized into 3 modalities:

                (1) Loans 447.01 million baht or 9.8% of the overall ODA

                (2) Grant and Technical Cooperation 1,662.45 million baht or 36.44% of the overall ODA

                (3) Contribution to international organizations 2,452.32 million baht or 53.76% of the overall ODA

 

                Among the providers in the grants and technical cooperation category, Office of the Higher Education Commission had always been the main donor, but in 2018, the Ministry of Transport was the largest donor (803.72 million baht) because of its construction of the new border bridge with Cambodia (Baan Nong Ian in Thailand and Stung Bot in Cambodia) and the friendship bridge between Thailand and Myanmar.

                In terms of Loans, the Neighboring Countries Economic Development Cooperation Agency (NEDA) granted loans to 78 projects in 7 countries between 2005-2018 (Laos PDR, Vietnam, Cambodia, Myanmar, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Timor-Leste), totaling 17,591.33 million baht.  NEDA emphasizes 4 areas for consideration: (1) transportation connectivity (2) energy (3) urban development and (4) human resource development.  At the beginning, 30 projects were in Laos PDR, totaling 14,088.82 million baht, followed by Cambodia (6 projects, totaling 3.14 million baht) and Vietnam.  Among all 78 projects, 24 projects are soft loans (17,292.78 million baht), 36 projects are human resource training (23.29 million baht for 406 persons), and 19 projects are technical cooperation (275.26 million baht.)

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                At present, while Thailand is neither a member of Development Assistance Committee nor the Non-Development Assistance Committee of the OECD, but TICA has been reporting Thailand’s ODA to the OECD since 2006 on a voluntary basis.  In turn, while the OECD categorized Thailand as an upper-middle income country, it has been keeping record of Thailand’s ODA, signifying Thailand’s emerging status to the developed countries which OECD encourages to donate 0.7% of GNI as ODA.  (Thailand’s ODA is at 0.03% of GNI.)

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Thailand’s ODA as percentage of GNI from 2010 to 2018

The OECD encourages developed countries to donate 0.7% of GNI as ODA.  In 2018, only the UK, Denmark, Norway, Luxemburg and Sweden completed the target.

Thailand’s ODA as percentage of GNI, compared to other countries from 2006 to 2017

From OECD database from 2006-2017, Thailand’s net ODA/GNI was between 0.001 to 0.09.

From 2012 to 2016, countries with highest ODA/GNI were UAE, Sweden, Norway and Luxemburg.

 

                In terms of Thailand as recipient of ODA, Thailand’s role has been steadily decreasing (with the exception of 2012 when Thailand received 68,107.52 million baht in ODA for flood relief.)  In 2018, Thailand received 1,582.9 million baht ODA for human resource development through scholarships and training courses in education, public health and social development.  Thailand received ODA bilaterally from Japan, China and Germany, as well as from the US and France which donates to Thailand as a base for other countries in the region.

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Thailand as recipient of ODA (2010-2018)

From 2010 to 2018, Thailand received between 1,543.75 to 68,107.52 million baht ODA.  ODA amount peaked in 2012 with Japan’s donation for flood relief.

Outcome from ODA that Thailand received in 2018

Human Resource Development 286 scholarships 5 education scholarships 263 study tour scholarships

Cooperation with international NGOs 6 International organizations provided scholarship through Fulbright scholarships 28 Thais 31 Americans

Volunteers from abroad 3 agencies 116 persons 73 Peace Corps 29 KOICA 14 JICA

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